1. Squash and Stretch:
Within squash and stretch it allows you to give the idea of volume and weight to a character as it moves around and creates facial expressions. To determine how extreme the use of this is, you need to know what is required within the animation scene. It is used a lot within animation, such as scenes including walking and bouncing a ball.
This is used to create tension for an important action a character is going to perform. This could include, running, jumping or expression changes. Movements are more than what they appear to be, backwards motions occur before the action is performed. This is the anticipation.
The attitude of an action should be clearly portrayed to the audience. The mood and reaction relates the character to the story and the continuation of the story line. The use of camera angles can also help with this. Every shot must relate to the actual continuation of the story, as the is limited time within the movie. One clear action which gets the message across is better than creating several, more complicated and confusing actions. Staging directs the audiences attention and creates the story line in a more understandable way.
4. Straight Ahead and Pose to Pose Animation:
Straight ahead animation begins with one drawing that then works further with drawing to drawing to get to the end of the scene. This can cause you to lose volume, size and proportions. This method is used to create fast action scenes. Pose to pose animation is a technique that is more planned, using key drawings throughout different points in the scene. This allows you to control the volume, size and proportions a little better than when using straight ahead animation.
5. Follow Through and Overlapping Action:
Arms, long hair, clothing and coat tails are all things that will need to catch up to the main body mass action. They don't all stop at once, they would carry on and follow through. Overlapping action is when the items of clothing on a character keep moving forward as the character changes direction.
6. Slow-Out and Slow-In:
When an action starts, more drawings would be present on the starting pose, and again more towards the end pose. Fewer drawings in the middle make it faster, and more drawings makes it slower. This principle, softens the action, and makes it a more realistic movement.
Most actions follow a slightly circular or arced path. This very much applies to the human figure. It creates a more fluid and natural movement along with better flow. The same applies to a pendulum swing, or arms, or maybe even eye movements are created with arcs.
8. Secondary Action:
Secondary actions add to the main actions, enriching them, and giving them more dimension. If a character is angrily moving towards another character, the walk would be aggressive and forceful. The action would be the walk and the secondary action would be a few strong gestures with the arms.
More drawings within an action, slows down this action, whearas less drawings, would make the action much faster. Using these together as a variety within a scene can make movements look more fluid and crisp, along with texture and movement.
This can create a more caricature look to the animation. Tracing live-action film can make the animation look less fluid and mechanical. Where as exaggerating some features within the character and the movement, you get a more fluid, and eye pleasing movement.
11. Solid Drawing:
This is the basic principles you use to draw for animation, for drawing form, weight, facial expressions, ect.
Appeal is charisma within animation. All characters must have appeal, whether they are a villain, superhero, civilian, animal, police officer, ect. You need to make this clear within the drawings, giving the character the 'charisma' relative to that type of person.